Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2021)                   JoMMID 2021, 9(1): 32-37 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Heidar Nejadi S M, abdoli A. Contamination of Raw Herbs with Parasitic Protozoa and Helminths in Shushtar City, Southwestern Iran. JoMMID. 2021; 9 (1) :32-37
URL: http://jommid.pasteur.ac.ir/article-1-272-en.html
Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran
Abstract:   (81 Views)
Introduction: Intestinal parasites are among the most prevalent foodborne diseases worldwide, and raw vegetables and herbs are among the primary sources of human infection by these parasites. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of parasitic contamination of fresh herbs in Shushtar, Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. Methods: In this study, 129 herb samples from various farms were collected and washed with water. The washing waters were centrifuged, and the resulting sediments were examined by formol-ether concentration and Sheather's sugar flotation procedure, as well as a wet smear and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Results: Among the 129 samples, 73.6% (n=95) showed contamination with at least one parasite, including trophozoite like amoebae (52.6%), followed by Giardia lamblia (14.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (2.1%), Blastocystis sp. (21%), free-living nematodes larvae (3.1%), Trichostrongilid nematodes (1.05%), Ascaris lumericoids eggs (2.1%), Hymenolepis spp. (2.1%) and Taeniid eggs (1.05%). Conclusion: A high prevalence rate of parasitic contaminations of herbs in Shushtar necessitates proper washing of herbs and vegetables by consumers to prevent parasitic infections.
Full-Text [PDF 3993 kb]   (24 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Infectious diseases and public health
Received: 2020/09/17 | Accepted: 2021/03/20 | Published: 2021/04/27

1. Mowlavi G, MirAhmadi H, Rezaeian M, Kia E, Rokni M, Golestan B, et al. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in tribal parts of Khuzestan Province during 2005-07. Govaresh. 2008; 12 (4): 219-28.
2. Beiromvand M, Panabad E, Rafiei A. Status of intestinal parasitic infections among rural and urban populations, southwestern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2019; 12 (3): 30-6. [DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.254939]
3. Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, et al. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet. 2006; 367 (9521): 1521-32. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68653-4]
4. Taghipour A, Ghodsian S, Jabbari M, Olfatifar M, Abdoli A, Ghaffarifar F. Global prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2020; traa101. [DOI:10.1093/trstmh/traa101]
5. Arani AS, Alaghehbandan R, Akhlaghi L, Shahi M, Lari AR. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2008; 50 (3): 145-9. [DOI:10.1590/S0036-46652008000300003]
6. Mahni MB, Rezaeian M, Eshrat Beigom K, Raeisi A, Khanaliha K, Tarighi F, et al. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2016; 11 (2): 232.
7. Salemi B, Esteghamati A, Sayyahfar S, Bokharaei-Salim F, Keyvani H, Khanaliha K. Frequency of Intestinal Parasitic Infection Among Working Children in Tehran, Iran. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis. 2019; 7 (4). [DOI:10.5812/pedinfect.93760]
8. Van Duyn MAS, Pivonka E. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000; 100 (12): 1511-21. [DOI:10.1016/S0002-8223(00)00420-X]
9. Gajadhar A. Introduction to foodborne parasites. Foodborne Parasites in the Food Supply Web: Elsevier; 2015. p. 3-9. [DOI:10.1016/B978-1-78242-332-4.00001-1]
10. Losio M, Pavoni E, Bilei S, Bertasi B, Bove D, Capuano F, et al. Microbiological survey of raw and ready-to-eat leafy green vegetables marketed in Italy. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000; 100 (12): 1511-21.
11. Marques CS, Sousa S, Castro A, da Costa JMC. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in fresh vegetables and berry fruits. Parasit Vectors. 2020; 13: 1-12. [DOI:10.1186/s13071-020-04040-2]
12. Adamu NB, Adamu JY, Mohammed D. Prevalence of helminth parasites found on vegetables sold in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. Food control. 2012; 25 (1): 23-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.10.016]
13. Gupta N, Khan D, Santra S. Prevalence of intestinal helminth eggs on vegetables grown in wastewater-irrigated areas of Titagarh, West Bengal, India. Food control. 2009; 20 (10): 942-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.02.003]
14. Fallah AA, Pirali-Kheirabadi K, Shirvani F, Saei-Dehkordi SS. Prevalence of parasitic contamination in vegetables used for raw consumption in Shahrekord, Iran: influence of season and washing procedure. Food Control. 2012; 25 (2): 617-20. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.12.004]
15. Kozan E, Gonenc B, Sarimehmetoglu O, Aycicek H. Prevalence of helminth eggs on raw vegetables used for salads. Food Control. 2012; 25 (2): 617-20.
16. Daryani A, Sharif M, Nasrolahei M, Khalilian A, Mohammadi A, Barzegar G. Epidemiological survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasites among schoolchildren in Sari, northern Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012; 106 (8): 455-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.trstmh.2012.05.010]
17. Rahdar M, Vazirianzadeh B, Gholami M, Garshasbi S. Detection of intestinal parasite agents on raw consumed vegetables in Ahvaz-Iran. Sci Med J. 2012; 10 (6).
18. Sarkari B, Hosseini G, Motazedian MH, Fararouei M, Moshfe A. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal protozoan infections: a population-based study in rural areas of Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran. BMC Infec Dis. 2016; 16 (1): 703. [DOI:10.1186/s12879-016-2047-4]
19. Cacciò SM, Widmer G. Cryptosporidium: parasite and disease: Springer Science & Business Media; 2013. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-7091-1562-6]
20. M J Arrowood, C R Sterling. Isolation of cryptosporidium oocysts and sporozoites using discontinuous sucrose and isopycnic percoll gradients. J Parasitol. 1987; 73 (2): 314-9. [DOI:10.2307/3282084]
21. Garcia LS. Diagnostic medical parasitology: American Society for Microbiology Press; 2006.
22. Gharavi MJ JM, Rokni MB. Parasitic Contamination of Vegetables from Farms and Markets in Tehran. Iranian J Publ Health. 2002; 31 (3-4): 83-6.
23. Nazemi S, Raei M, Amiri M, Chaman R. Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables in Shahroud, Semnan. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2012; 14 (8): 84-6.
24. Balarak D, Joghatayi A, JafariModrek M, Ansari H. The Study of Consumed Vegetables Parasitic Infections in Qom City in 2014: A Short Report. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2016; 14 (10): 895-902.
25. Saki J, Asadpoori R, Khademvatan S. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables consumed in Ahvaz, South West of Iran. J Med Sci. 2013; 13 (6): 488. [DOI:10.3923/jms.2013.488.492]
26. Matini M, Shamsi-Ehsan T, Maghsood AH. The Parasitic Contamination of Farm Vegetables in Asadabad City, West of Iran, in 2014. Avicenna J Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017; 4 (1). [DOI:10.17795/ajcmi-32474]
27. Mohamed MA, Siddig EE, Elaagip AH, Edris AMM, Nasr AA. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2016; 15 (1): 17. [DOI:10.1186/s12941-016-0133-5]
28. Luz JGG, Barbosa MV, CARVALHO AGd, Resende SD, Dias JVL, Martins HR. Contamination by intestinal parasites in vegetables marketed in an area of Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rev de Nutr. 2017; 30 (1): 127-36. [DOI:10.1590/1678-98652017000100012]
29. Tefera T, Biruksew A, Mekonnen Z, Eshetu T. Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from selected local markets of Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia. Int Sch Res Notices. 2014; 2014. [DOI:10.1155/2014/382715]
30. El Bakri A, Hussein NM, Ibrahim ZA, Hasan H, AbuOdeh R. Intestinal Parasite Detection in Assorted Vegetables in the United Arab Emirates. Oman Med J. 2020; 35 (3): e128. [DOI:10.5001/omj.2020.46]
31. Pestehchian N, Nazari M, Haghighi A, Salehi M, Yosefi HA, Khosravi N. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among inhabitants and tribes of Chelgerd, Iran, 2008-2009. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015; 9 (5): LC01. [DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2015/11580.5879]
32. Yilmaz H, Abdullah A. Prevalence of Intestinal parasites (Entamoeba species and Giardia lamblia) in Duhok and Erbil cities, Northern Iraq. J Microbiol Exp. 2017; 4 (6). [DOI:10.15406/jmen.2017.04.00132]
33. Sharif M, Daryani A, Kia E, Rezaei F, Nasiri M, Nasrolahei M. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers of Sari, Northern Iran. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2015; 57 (2): 139-44. [DOI:10.1590/S0036-46652015000200007]
34. Adenusi AA, Abimbola WA, Adewoga TO. Human intestinal helminth contamination in pre-washed, fresh vegetables for sale in major markets in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Food Control. 2015; 50: 843-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.10.033]
35. Asadpour M, Malekpour H, Jafari A, Bahrami S. Diversity of parasitic contamination in raw vegetables commonly consumed in Shiraz, Southwest of Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2016; 6 (2): 160-2. [DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(15)61004-0]
36. Rokni M. The present status of human helminthic diseases in Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008; 102 (4): 283-95. [DOI:10.1179/136485908X300805]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.