Volume 8, Issue 3 (7-2020)                   JoMMID 2020, 8(3): 124-119 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Shamsi L, Samaeinasab S, Haghighatkhah A. Prevalence of Ectoparasites in Free-ranging Backyard Chickens of Sabzevar City, Iran. JoMMID. 2020; 8 (3) :124-119
URL: http://jommid.pasteur.ac.ir/article-1-291-en.html
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
Abstract:   (883 Views)
Introduction: One of the most important food sources of humans are poultry products. Poultries are irritated and losing blood by blood-sucking ectoparasites, which affect the quality and quantity of meat and egg production. Methods: This study was conducted on 120 free-ranging backyard chickens from December 2017 to November 2018 to determine ectoparasites' prevalence in Sabzevar city, northeastern Iran. Different parts of the birds' bodies were examined, and ectoparasites were collected. The specimens were identified based on morphological features using diagnostic keys. Results: Of the 120 (30 males and 90 females) free-ranging backyard chickens examined, 75 (62.5%) showed infestation with three lice and one mite species. The prevalence of infestation was higher in females (66.67%) than males (50%); however, the difference was not significant (P>0.05). The louse Menopon gallinae was the most prevalent species (57.33%), followed by Menacanthus stramineus (37.33%), Lipeurus caponis (13.33%), and Dermanyssus gallinae (4%). Conclusion: This is the first survey on determining the prevalence and multiplicity of ectoparasites among free-ranging backyard chickens in Sabzevar city, Iran. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites among chickens shows that parasitic infection is prevalent in this area.
Full-Text [PDF 441 kb]   (264 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Other
Received: 2020/10/19 | Accepted: 2020/07/20 | Published: 2020/12/26

1. Maqbool A, Ahmed M, Raza A. Prevalence of helminth parasites of poultry under different managemental conditions. J Fac Vet Med Univ Tehran. 1998; 53 (1-2): 103-10.
2. Permin A, Esmann J, Hoj C, Hove T, Mukaratirwa S. Ecto-, endo-and haemoparasites in free-range chickens in the Goromonzi District in Zimbabwe. Prev Vet Med. 2002; 54 (3): 213-24. [DOI:10.1016/S0167-5877(02)00024-7]
3. Obiora FC. A Guide to Poultry Production in the Tropics, Acena Publishers, Enugu, Nigeria, 1st edition; 1992.
4. Colebrook E, Wall R. Ectoparasites of livestock in Europe and the Mediterranean region. Vet Parasitol. 2004; 120 (4): 251-274. [DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.01.012]
5. Nnadozie VO. Prevalence of Ectoparasites of Local Chicken in Nsukka Area of Enugu State, Nigeria, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; 1996.
6. Tolossa Y, Shafi Z, Basu A. Ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths of chickens of three agroclimatic zones in Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Anim Biol. 2009; 59 (3): 289-97. [DOI:10.1163/157075609X454926]
7. Kaufman PE, Koehler PG, Butler JF. External Parasites of Poultry, University of Florida institute of Food And Agricultural Sciences, Gainesville, Fla, USA; 2007.
8. Whitmarsh S.Parasitic Diseases (Internal). Poultry Science, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Miss, USA; 1997.
9. Ruff MD. Important parasites in poultry production systems. Vet Parasitol. 1999; 84 (3-4): 337. [DOI:10.1016/S0304-4017(99)00076-X]
10. Eslami A, Ghaemi P, Rahbari S. Parasitic infections of free range chickens from Golestan province. Iran Iran J Parasitol. 2009; 4 (3): 10-14.
11. Dinka H, Chala R, Dawo F, Bekana E, Leta S. Major constraints and health management of village poultry production in rift valley of Oromia, Ethiopia. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci. 2010; 9 (5): 529-33.
12. Halima H, Neser FW, Van Marle-Koster E, De Kock A. Village-based indigenous chicken production system in north-west Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2007; 39 (3): 189-97. [DOI:10.1007/s11250-007-9004-6]
13. Soulsby EJL (1982) Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals, 7th edn. Bailliere Tindall, London; 1982.
14. Wall R, Shearer D. Veterinary Entomology: Arthropod Ectoparasites of Veterinary Importance, Netherlands: Springer; 2012.
15. Hashemzade-farhang H, Namdarian MR, Shirazi S, Shahbazi P. Survey of ectoparasites in native poultry of Tabriz city, Iran. Iran Vet J. 2008; 4 (21): 97-100
16. Radfar MH, Khedri J, Adinehbeigi K, Nabavi R, Rahmani K. Prevalence of parasites and associated risk factors in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and free-range backyard chickens of Sistan region, east of Iran. J Parasit Dis. 2012; 36 (2): 220-5. [DOI:10.1007/s12639-012-0112-5]
17. Ebrahimi M, Ahmadi A, Mohammadpour H. Survey on infestation to ectoparasites in native poultry of Najaf-Abad. J Food Microbiol. 2013; 4 (14): 17-20.
18. Sabuni Z, Mbuthia P, Maingi N, Nyaga P, Njagi L, Bebora L, et al. Prevalence of ectoparasites infestation in indigenous free-ranging village chickens in different agro-ecological zones in Kenya. Livest Res Rural Dev. 2010; 22 (11): 1-5.
19. Belihu K, Mamo A, Lobago F, Ayana D. Prevalence of Ectoparasites in Backyard Local Chickens in Three Agroecologic Zones of East Shoa in Ethiopia. Revue Méd Vét. 2010; 160 (11): 537-41.
20. Wang FF, Wang M, Xu FR, Liang D, Pan BL. Survey of prevalence and control of ectoparasites in caged poultry in China. Vet Rec. 2010; 167 (24): 934-7. [DOI:10.1136/vr.c6212]
21. Shanta IS, Begum N, Anisuzzaman, Bari ASM, Karim MJ. Prevalence and Clinico-Pathological Effects of Ectoparasites in Backyard Poultry. Bangl J Vet Med. 2006; 4 (1): 19-26. [DOI:10.3329/bjvm.v4i1.1520]
22. Kansal G, Singh HS. Incidence of Ectoparasites in Broiler Chicken in Meerut. IOSR- JAVS. 2014; 7 (1): 55-8. [DOI:10.9790/2380-07115558]
23. Tolossa YH, Tafesse HA. Occurrence of ectoparasites and gastro-intestinal helminthes infections in Fayoumi chickens (Gallus gallus Fayoumi) in Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center Poultry Farm, Oromia region, Ethiopia. J Vet Med Anim Health. 2013; 5 (4): 107-12.
24. Nnadi PA, George SO. A cross-sectional survey on parasites of chickens in selected villages in the subhumid zones of southeastern Nigeria. J Parasitol Res. 2010; 2010: 1-6 [DOI:10.1155/2010/141824]
25. Mekuria S, Gezahegn E. Prevalence of External parasite of poultry in intensive and backyard chicken farm at Wolayta Soddo town, Southern Ethiopia. Vet World. 2010; 3 (12): 533-8.
26. Mungube EO, Bauni SM, Tenhagen BA, Wamae LW, Nzioka SM, Muhammed L, et al. Prevalence of parasites of the local scavenging chickens in a selected semi-arid zone of Eastern Kenya. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2008; 40 (2): 101-9. [DOI:10.1007/s11250-007-9068-3]
27. Bala A, Anka S, Waziri A, Shehu H. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Four Areas of Sokoto Metropolis. Nig J Basic Appl Sci. 2011; 19 (2): 173-80.
28. Ebrahimi M, Samiei K, Anousheh D, Razi Jalali MH. Identification of ectoparasites in indigenous poultry in southern areas of West Azerbaijan, Iran: A study on the prevalence and importance of these parasites. Arch Razi Inst. 2016; 71 (4): 253-8.
29. Mirzaei M, Ghashghaei O, Yakhchali M. Prevalence of Ectoparasites of Indigenous Chickens from Dalahu Region, Kermanshah Province, Iran. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2016; 40 (1): 13-6. [DOI:10.5152/tpd.2016.4185]
30. Bhat SA, Wani MY, Khojuria JK, Katoch R, Dhama K. A Rare Report of Ectoparasites in Backyard Poultry in Jammu Region: Prevalence Study and Economic Importance. Asian J Anim Vet Adv. 2014; 9 (11): 727-31. [DOI:10.3923/ajava.2014.727.731]
31. Chaddha D, Agnihotri RK, Katoch R. Incidence of ectoparasites in poultry in Palam valley of Himachal Pradesh. J Vet Parasitol. 2005; 19: 57-9.
32. Sadiq NA, Adejinmi JO, Adedokun OA, Fashanu SO, Alimi AA, Sofunmade YT. Ectoparasites and haemoparasites of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Ibadan and environs. Tropical Vet. 2003; 21 (4): 187-91. [DOI:10.4314/tv.v21i4.4541]
33. Abebe W, Asfaw T, Genete B, Dorchies P. Comparative studies of external parasites and gastrointestinal helminths of chickens kept under different management system in and around Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). Rev Med Vet. 1997; 148 (6): 497-500.
34. Rezaei F, Hashemnia M, Chalechale A, Seidi Sh, Gholizadeh M. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran. J Parasit Dis. 2016; 40 (2): 448-53. [DOI:10.1007/s12639-014-0524-5]
35. Lawal JR, Bukola Yusuf Z, Jamila Dauda J, Gazali YA, Biu AA. EctoparasitesInfestation and its Associated Risk Factors in Village Chickens (Gallusgallusdomesticus) in and Around Potiskum, Yobe State, Nigeria. JAHDS. 2017; 1 (1): 8-19.
36. Sparagano OAE, George DR, Harrington DWJ, Giangaspero A. Significance and Control of the Poultry Red Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. Annual Rev Entomol. 2014; 59: 447-66. [DOI:10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162101]
37. Razmi GR, Moaveni M, Kalidari GA. Epidemiological study of Dermanyssus gallinae infestation in egg laying flocks of Mashhad area, Iran. In: 4th National symposium of poultry health and diseases, Iran. 2008; 329-31.
38. Yakhchali M, Rasouli S, Alborzi E. Prevalence and body distribution of the poultry red mite in layer farms from Markazi province of Iran. Iranian J Vet Res. 2013; 14 (1): 72-4
39. Cencek T. Prevalence of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farms in Silesia region in Poland. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2003; 47 (2): 465-9.
40. Magdas C, Chirila F, Fit N, Criste A, Baciu H. Epidemiologic study of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) infestation in birds, from three localities on Cluj area. Bull Univ Agric Sci Vet Med. 2006; 63 (1-2): 309-14.
41. Höglund J, Nordenfors H, Uggla A. Prevalence of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, in diVerent types of production systems for egg layers in Sweden. Poult Sci. 1995; 74 (11): 1793-8. [DOI:10.3382/ps.0741793]
42. Othman RA, Abdallah JM, Abo-Omar J. Prevalence of the red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in layer flocks in four districts in northern West Bank, Palestine. Open J Anim Sci. 2012; 2 (2): 106-9. [DOI:10.4236/ojas.2012.22014]
43. Paliy A, Mashkey AM, Sumakova NV. Distribution of poultry ectoparasites in industrial farms, farms, and private plots with different rearing technologies. Biosyst Divers. 2018; 26 (2): 153-9. [DOI:10.15421/011824]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.