Volume 7, Issue 1 And 2 (1-2019)                   JoMMID 2019, 7(1 And 2): 44-51 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Paknejadi M, Bayat M, Razavilar V. Investigating the Frequency of Candida glabrata in Diabetic Women of Tehran with Recurrent and Non-recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Using PCR-RFLP Assay. JoMMID . 2019; 7 (1 and 2) :44-51
URL: http://jommid.pasteur.ac.ir/article-1-206-en.html
Department of Pathobiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (121 Views)
Introduction: Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common genital tract infections among women, especially in diabetic patients. The increasing prevalence of recurrent infections caused by drug-resistant non-albicans species necessitates further studies on diabetic patients and the identification of causative agents by reliable molecular techniques. The obtained results can assist in adopting proper treatment procedures and prevention of recurrent vulvovaginitis (RVVC). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 150 vaginal discharge samples were collected from diabetic women suspected of candidiasis referring to health centers in Tehran province. Following the culture of samples on SDA, CHROMagar Candida and PCR-RFLP were used for presumptive and definitive identification of Candida species, respectively. Results: Out of 115 positive patients, 105 showed infection with one species, and 10 had a mixed infection with two species. The frequency of Candida glabrata isolated from non-mixed and mixed infections in RVVC group was higher than Candida albicans (27.8% vs. 9.6%), which contradicted the results of the VVC group (6.1% vs. 24.3%). In the RVVC group, therefore, the patients were more infected with non-albicans species than C. albicans (47.8% vs. 9.6%), while in the VVC group the non-albicans were of lower frequency (18.3% vs. 24.3%). Conclusion: Our findings showed a statistically significant correlation (P<0.001) between the frequency of C. glabrata and the prevalence of RVVC. On the other hand, that blood sugar, duration of diabetes, and antibiotics usage had significant correlations (P<0.001) with the recurrence of severe symptoms. 
Full-Text [PDF 913 kb]   (27 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Microbial pathogenesis
Received: 2019/07/23 | Accepted: 2019/09/16 | Published: 2019/11/3

References
1. 1. Gandhi TN, Patel MG, Jain MR. Prospective study of vaginal discharge and prevalence of Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital. Int J Cur Res Rev. 2015; 7 (1): 34-38.
2. LemaVM. Recurrent Vulvo-Vaginal Candidiasis: Diagnostic and Management Challenges in a Developing Country Context. Obstet Gynecol Int J. 2017; 7 (5): 00260. [DOI:10.15406/ogij.2017.07.00260]
3. Kalia N, Singh J, Sharma S, Kamboj SS, Arora H, Kaur M. Prevalence of Vulvovaginal Infections and Species Specific Distribution of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Married Women of North India. IntJ CurrMicrobiol App Sci. 2015; 4 (8): 253-266.
4. Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015; 64 (RR3): 1-137.
5. Diba K, Namaki A, Ayatolahi H, Hanifian H. Comparison of biochemical and molecular methods for the identification of Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis and recurring vulvovaginal candidiasis. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2014; 8 (3): 45-50 [In Persian].
6. Marschalek J, Farr A, Kiss H, Hagmann M, Göbl CS, Trofaier ML, et al. Risk of Vaginal Infections at Early Gestation in Patients with Diabetic Conditions during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Plos One. 2016; 11 (5): e0155182. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155182]
7. Mintz JD, Martenz MG. Prevalence of Non-albicans Candida Infections in Women with Recurrent Vulvovaginal symptomatology. Adv Infect Dis. 2013; 3: 238-242. [DOI:10.4236/aid.2013.34035]
8. Arfiputri D.S, Hidayati A.N, Handayani S, Ervianti E. Risk Factors of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Dermato-Venereology Outpatients Clinic of Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Afr J Infect Dis. 2018; 12 (S): 90-94. [DOI:10.21010/ajid.v12i1S.13]
9. BlosteinF, Levin-Sparenberg E, Wagner J, Foxman B. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Annals of Epidemiology. 2017; 27: 575e582. [DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.08.010]
10. Wang FJ, Zhang D, Liu ZhH, Wu WX, Bai HH, Dong HY. Species Distribution and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Vulvovaginal of Candida species Isolates in China. Chin Med J. 2016; 129 (10): 1161-65. [DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.181964]
11. Elfeky DS, Gohar NM, EL-Seidi EA, Ezzat MM, AboElew SH. Species identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates in cases of vaginal candidiasis. Alexandria J Med. 2016; 52: 269-77. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajme.2015.10.001]
12. Hedayati MT, Taheri Z, Galinimoghadam T, Aghili SR, Yazdani JG, Mosayebi E. Isolation of Different Species of Candida in Patients With Vulvovaginal Candidiasis From Sari, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015; 8 (4): e15992. [DOI:10.5812/jjm.8(4)2015.15992]
13. Jimoh O, Hannah I, Yakubu SE, Ankuma SJ, Olayinka AT. Prevalence and Speciation of Non-albicans Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Zaria. J Nat Sci Res. 2016; 6 (2): 51-56.
14. Bonifaz A, Armas-Vázquez A, Tirado-Sánchez A. Fungal Infections in Diabetics. Dermatology and Diabetes. 2017; 117-132. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-72475-1_9]
15. Adebiyi OE, Oluwadun A, Daniel OJ, Oritogun RS, Fasanmade AA. Prevalence of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Among Women with Diabetes mellitus in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Ann Health Res. 2016; 21 (2).
16. Bassyouni RH, Wegdan AA, Abdelmoneim A, Said W, AboElnaga F. Phospholipase and Aspartyl Proteinase Activities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015; 25 (10): 1734-41. [DOI:10.4014/jmb.1504.04009]
17. MohammedAB, Ali JH, Abdullah SK. Identification of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal swab by phenotyp.ic methods and multiplex PCR in Duhok, Iraq. Int J Res Med Sci. 2015; 3 (11): 3211-6. [DOI:10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20151165]
18. Mahmoudi Rad M, Zafarghandi AS, Amel Zabihi M, Mirdamadi Y, Rahbarian N, Abbasabadi B, et al. Identification of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis by Multiplex PCR method. Tehran Univ Med J. 2009; 67 (9): 623-8 [In Persian].
19. Fouladi B, Yadegari M, Rajabibazl M, Fazaeli A, Hashemzadeh MC. Identification of Candida Species in Patients with Vulvovaginitis Presenting Different Clinical Symptoms. J Zanjan Univ Med Sci. 2015; 23 (98): 53-67 [In Persian].
20. Mohammadi R, MirhendiH, Yadegari MH,ShadziSh, Jalalizand N. Identification and Frequency of Candida Species in Patients with Different Forms of Candidiasis in Isfahan, Using PCR-RFLP Method. J Isfahan Med Sch. 2011; 29 (133): 336-43 [In Persian].
21. Korabecna M. The Variability in the Fungal Ribosomal DNA (ITS1, ITS2, and 5.8 S rRNA Gene): Its Biological Meaning and Application in Medical Mycology. Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology A. Méndez-Vilas (Ed.) 2007; 1: 783-7.
22. Mirhendi H, Makimura K, Zomorodian K, Meeda N. Differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using single-Enzyme PCR-RFLP Method. Jpn J Infect Ois. 2005; 58: 235-37.
23. Gunther LSA, Martins HPR, Gimenes F, Abreu ALP, Consolaro MEL, Svidzinski TIE. Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans isolates from vaginal secretions: comparative evaluation of colonization, vaginal candidiasis and recurrent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic and non-diabetic women. Sao Paulo Med J. 2014; 132 (2): 116-120. [DOI:10.1590/1516-3180.2014.1322640]
24. Fattouh M, Nasr El-din A, Badawy A, Nour El-din M, Ahmed H. Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern and Species Distribution of Candida Isolates from Patients with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Int J Adv Res. 2015; 3 (5): 1376-86.
25. Kalaiarasan K, Singh R, Chaturvedula L. Fungal Profile of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017, 11(3): DC06-DC09. [DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2017/23578.9475]
26. Shrivastav V.K, Shukla D, Shrivastav A, Jana A.M. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in diabetic women of Madhya Pradesh, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2015; 4(5): 834-846.
27. Sangaré I, Sirima C, Bamba S, Zida A, Cissé M, Bazié WW, et al. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnancy at three health centers in Burkina Faso. J Mycol Med. 2018; 28 (1): 186-192. [DOI:10.1016/j.mycmed.2017.08.006]
28. Goulart LS, Santiago EF, Ramon JL, Moura SV, Silva AR, Silva IF, et al. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility to vulvovaginal Candida spp. in southern Mato Grosso State, Brazil. J Bras Patol Med Lab. 2016; 52(4): 233-237. [DOI:10.5935/1676-2444.20160039]
29. Al-mamari A, Al-buryhi M.M, Al-hag S. Species-specific prevalence of vaginal candidiasis with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus among women in Sana'a city. J Chem Pharm Res. 2013; 5 (8): 217-224.
30. Faraji R, Rahimi MA, Rezvanmadani F, Hashemi M. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis infection in diabetic women. African J Microbial Res. 2012; 6 (11): 2773-8. [DOI:10.5897/AJMR11.1443]
31. Yadav K, Prakash S. Prevalence of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnancy. Glob J Med Med Sci. 2016; 4 (1): 108-116.
32. Bitew A, Abebaw Y. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: species distribution of Candida and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. BMC Women's Health. 2018; 18: 94. [DOI:10.1186/s12905-018-0607-z]
33. Wang H, Huang Z, Wu Z, Qi X, Lin D. An epidemiological study on vaginitis in 6,150 women of reproductive age in Shanghai. New Microbiologica. 2017; 40 (2): 113-8.
34. Pondei K, Jeremiah I, Lawani E, Nsikak E. The Prevalence of Symptomatic Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Associated Risk Factors among Women in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. ISRR. 2017; 5 (2): 1-10. [DOI:10.9734/ISRR/2017/32057]
35. Sopian LL, Shahabudin S, Ahmed MA, Lung LTT, Sandai D. Yeast Infection and Diabetes Mellitus among Pregnant Mother in Malaysia. Malays J Med Sci. 2016; 23 (1): 27-34.
36. Alsharifi E.A, Epidemiology of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women attending Tikrit teaching hospital/Iraq. J Fac Med Baghdad. 2017; 59 (4): 321-324. [DOI:10.32007/med.1936/jfacmedbagdad.v59i4.10]
37. Habibian R, Jafarzadeh L, Shahriari K. Investigating the relationship between recurrent candidiasis with predisposing factors and symptoms of disease. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2013; 15 (5): 38-46 [In Persian].
38. Devi LS, Maheshwari M. Speciation of Candida Species Isolated From Clinical Specimen By CHROMagar and Conventional Method. Int J Sci Res Pub 2014; 4 (3): 1-5.
39. Zhai Y, Liu J, Zhou L, Ji T, Meng L, Gao Y, et al. Detection of Candida species in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon method. J Med Microbiol 2018; 67 (4): 1-7. [DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.000740]
40. Williams DW, Wilson MJ, Lewis MA, Pots AJ. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer region of ribosomal DNA. J Clin Microbiol. 33: 2476-9.
41. Mirhendi H, Makimura K, Khoramizadeh MR, Yamaguchi H. A One-Enzyme PCR-RFLP Assay Identification of Six Medically Important Candida Species. J Mycol Méd. 2006; 47 (3): 222-5. [DOI:10.3314/jjmm.47.225]
42. Samiei M, Moaseni M, Ajudanifar H, Karimi N. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. Int J Mol Clin Microbiol 2014; 1: 383-8.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb