Volume 8, Issue 2 (4-2020)                   JoMMID 2020, 8(2): 40-44 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Sabzevari S, Mohebali M, Hashemi A. Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis: Parasites, Vectors and Reservoir Hosts in Endemic Foci of North Khorasan, Northeastern Iran- a Narrative Review. JoMMID. 2020; 8 (2) :40-44
URL: http://jommid.pasteur.ac.ir/article-1-238-en.html
Vector-borne Diseases Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran
Abstract:   (175 Views)
Leishmaniases are tropical diseases caused by various types of intracellular protozoan species of the genus Leishmania. The infection is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by the infective bite of female sandflies. Depending on the location of the parasite in mammalian tissues and Leishmania species, leishmaniasis presents at least three primary clinical forms: visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), and mucocutaneous (MCL). Iran is one of the significant endemic areas for CL in Asia. Here, we comprehensively reviewed the literature published from 2009 to 2019 and focused on the distribution, clinical aspects, causatives agents, reservoirs, and vectors of CL and VL in different parts of North Khorasan Province, northeast of Iran. North Khorasan Province in northeastern Iran is one of the principal foci of CL, but VL is just known as an endemic parasitic disease in some areas of this province. Based on a comprehensive literature search on studies published from 2009 to 2019, distribution, causatives agents, reservoirs, and vectors of CL and VL in different parts of North Khorasan Province were determined. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis )ZCL( due to Leishmania major is the main form of CL in this province. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are rodents and Ph. sergenti is the most predominant species. VL, caused by Leishmania infantum, occurs in some parts of the province, and wild canines were confirmed as reservoirs.
Full-Text [PDF 295 kb]   (101 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review article | Subject: Infectious diseases and public health
Received: 2020/02/1 | Accepted: 2020/07/14 | Published: 2020/08/16

1. Torres-Guerrero E, Quintanilla-Cedillo MR, Ruiz-Esmenjaud J, Arenas R. Leishmaniasis: a review. F1000Research. 2017;6. [DOI:10.12688/f1000research.11120.1]
2. Oryan A, Akbari M. Worldwide risk factors in leishmaniasis. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2016;9(10):925-32. [DOI:10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.021]
3. Salam N, Al-Shaqha WM, Azzi A. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: incidence and epidemiology. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2014;8(10):e3208. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003208]
4. Postigo JAR. Leishmaniasis in the world health organization eastern mediterranean region. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2010;36:S62-S5. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2010.06.023]
5. Azizi MH, Bahadori M, Dabiri S, Meymandi SS, Azizi F. A history of Leishmaniasis in Iran from 19th century onward. Archives of Iranian medicine. 2016;19(2):153.
6. World Health Organization. Leishmaniasis. Fact sheet: WHO; 2019. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/leishmaniasis 14 March 2019.
7. Holakouie-Naieni K, Mostafavi E, Boloorani AD, Mohebali M, Pakzad R. Spatial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran from 1983 to 2013. Acta tropica. 2017;166:67-73. [DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.11.004]
8. Heydarpour F, Sari AA, Mohebali M, Shirzadi M, Bokaie S. Incidence and disability-adjusted life years (Dalys) attributable to leishmaniasis in Iran, 2013. Ethiopian journal of health sciences. 2016;26(4):381-8. [DOI:10.4314/ejhs.v26i4.10]
9. Gholamrezaei M, Mohebali M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sedaghat MM, Shirzadi MR. Ecological Niche Modeling of main reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Acta tropica. 2016;160:44-52. [DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.04.014]
10. Hanafi-Bojd AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Haghdoost AA, Akhavan AA, Rassi Y, Karimi A, et al. Modeling the distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectors (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Iran: a potential transmission in disease prone areas. J Med Entomol. 2015;52(4):557-65. [DOI:10.1093/jme/tjv058]
11. Akhoundi M, Mohebali M, Asadi M, Mahmodi MR, Amraei K, Mirzaei A. Molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. in reservoir hosts in endemic foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Folia parasitologica. 2013;60(3):218. [DOI:10.14411/fp.2013.024]
12. Mohebali M. Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: review of the epidemiological and clinical features. Iranian journal of parasitology. 2013;8(3):348.
13. Mohebali M. Epidemiological status of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: experiences and review of literature. J Clinic Experiment Pathol S. 2012;3:1-5.
14. Alavinia S, Arzamani K, Reihani M, Jafari J. Some epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Khorasan Province, Iran. Iranian journal of arthropod-borne diseases. 2009;3(2):50.
15. Arzamani K, Fazeli R, Shirzadi M, Raeghi S, Arzamani M, Alavinia S. Visceral Leishmaniasis in North Khorasan Province, Iran. Journal of Zoonoses. 2014;1(1).
16. Yaghoobi-Ershadi M. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their role on Leishmania transmission. Journal of arthropod-borne diseases. 2012;6(1):1.
17. Hashemi N, Hejazi S, Hashemi M. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN NORTH KHORASAN IN 2009-2011. 2011. [DOI:10.29252/jnkums.3.3.101]
18. Rajabzadeh R, Arzamani K, Shoraka HR, Riyhani H. Epidemiological survey and geographical distribution of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Khorasan province, 2006-2013. International Journal of Epidemiologic Research. 2015;2(4):197-203.
19. Arzamani K, Mohammadi Z, Shirzadi MR, Alavinia SM, Jafari B, Darvish J. Faunistic study of the rodents of north Khorasan province, north east of Iran, 2011-2013. Journal of arthropod-borne diseases. 2018;12(2):127. [DOI:10.18502/jad.v12i2.38]
20. Rafizadeh S, Saraei M, Abai M, Mohebali M, Bakhshi H, Rassi Y. Relationship between interleukin 4 gene promoter polymorphisms and cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases in North Eastern Iran. BIOSCIENCE BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS. 2016;9(3):415-20. [DOI:10.21786/bbrc/9.3/11]
21. Rafizadeh S, Saraei M, Abaei MR, Oshaghi MA, Mohebali M, Peymani A, et al. Molecular Detection of Leishmania major and L. turanica in Phlebotomus papatasi and First Natural Infection of P. salehi to L. major in North-east of Iran. Journal of arthropod-borne diseases. 2016;10(2):141.
22. Rafizadeh S, Saraie M, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Mohebali M, Peymani A, et al. Study on reservoirs of cutaneous leishmaniasis using molecular methods of PCR-RFLP in endemic foci of disease, north east of Iran. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2014.
23. Arzamani K, Vatandoost H, Rassi Y, Akhavan AA, Abai MR, Alavinia M, et al. Richness and Diversity of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran. Journal of arthropod-borne diseases. 2018;12(3):232. [DOI:10.18502/jad.v12i3.75]
24. Tajedin L, Rassi Y, Oshaghi M, Telmadarraiy Z, Akhavan A, Abai M, et al. Study on ectoparasites of Rhombomys opimus, the main reservoir of zoonotic cutaneous Leishmaniasis in endemic foci in Iran. Iranian journal of arthropod-borne diseases. 2009;3(1):41.
25. Hashemi SA, Badirzadeh A, Sabzevari S, Nouri A, Seyyedin M. First case report of atypical disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in an opium abuser in Iran. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo. 2018;60. [DOI:10.1590/s1678-9946201860005]
26. Mohammadiha A, Dalimi A, Mohebali M, Sharifi I, Mahmoudi M, Mirzaei A, et al. Molecular identification and phylogenetic classification of Leishmania spp. isolated from human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran: A cross-sectional study. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2018;13(3):351.
27. Arzamani K, Vatandoost H, Rassi Y, Abai MR, Akhavan AA, Alavinia M, et al. Susceptibility status of wild population of Phlebotomus sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) to different imagicides in a endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeast of Iran. Journal of vector borne diseases. 2017;54(3):282. [DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.217621]
28. Shokri A, Fakhar M, Teshnizi SH. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta tropica. 2017;165:76-89. [DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.08.020]
29. Mohebali M, Hajjaran H, Hamzavi Y, Mobedi I, Arshi S, Zarei Z, et al. Epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Veterinary parasitology. 2005;129(3-4):243-51. [DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.01.010]
30. Sharifi I, Aflatoonian MR, Parizi MHD, Hosseininasab A, Mostafavi M, Bamorovat M, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis in Southeastern Iran: a narrative review. Iranian journal of parasitology. 2017;12(1):1.
31. Karimi A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Ghezelbash Z. Spatial and temporal distributions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of leishmaniasis, in Iran. Acta tropica. 2014;132:131-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.01.004]
32. Torabi V, Mohebali M, Edrissian G, Keshavarz H, Mohajeri M, Hajjaran M, et al. Seroepidemiological survey of visceral leishmaniasis by direct agglutination test in Bojnoord district, north Khorasan province in 2007. Iranian Journal of Epidemiology. 2009;4(3):43-50.
33. Mohebali M, Arzamani K, Zarei Z, Akhoundi B, Hajjaran H, Raeghi S, et al. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in wild canines (fox, jackal, and wolf) in northeastern Iran using parasitological, serological, and molecular methods. Journal of arthropod-borne diseases. 2016;10(4):538.
34. Badirzadeh A, Mohebali M, Sabzevari S, Ghafoori M, Arzamani K, Seyyedin M, et al. Case Report: First Coinfection Report of Mixed Leishmania infantum/Leishmania major and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Report of a Case of Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2018;98(1):122-5. [DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.17-0490]
35. Rassi Y, Abai M, Oshaghi M, Javadian E, Sanei A, Rafidzadeh S, et al. First detection of Leishmania infantum in Phlebotomus kandelakii using molecular methods in north-eastern Islamic Republic of Iran. 2012. [DOI:10.26719/2012.18.4.387]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.