Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2019)                   JoMMID 2019, 7(3): 79-84 | Back to browse issues page

DOI: 10.29252/JoMMID.7.3.79


XML Print


Molecular Systematics Laboratory, Department of Parasitology , Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (2020 Views)
Introduction: Rodents are reservoir hosts of various infectious diseases. Many species and subspecies of genus Rattus play a significant role as potential reservoir hosts of different emerging and re-emerging diseases, including leishmaniasis. Methods: Rodents were captured using live wooden traps from different localities of Khuzestan Province, southwest of Iran. To precise identification of two sister species of rats, including Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus, morphological, molecular, and biosystematics characters were examined using amplification of mitochondrial Cytochrome b (Cytb) gene fragment. Results: Out of 119 captured rodents, 44 were R. rattus, 12 were R. norvegicus, and 63 belonged to other species (Tatera indica, Nesokia indica, Mus musculus). Partial Cyt b gene (≤624 bp) was amplified to characterize R. rattus and R. norvegicus, accurately. Three haplotypes of R. rattus (six samples) and a unique haplotype of R. norvegicus (three samples) were identified with some nucleotide variations. Conclusion: Mitochondrial results confirmed morphological disparity between the two Rattus species in Khuzestan Province. Therefore, we recommend applying an integrative approach to identify host reservoirs for infectious diseases, especially those suspected as reservoirs of cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
Full-Text [PDF 598 kb]   (85 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Infectious diseases and public health
Received: 2019/07/24 | Accepted: 2019/11/10 | Published: 2020/03/9

References
1. Luis AD, Hayman DTS, O'Shea TJ, Cryan PM, Gilbert AT, Pulliam JR, et al. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Proc Biol Sci. 2013; 280: e20122753. [DOI:10.1098/rspb.2012.2753]
2. Morand S, Jittapalapong S, Kosoy M. Rodents as hosts of infectious diseases: biological and ecological characteristics. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015; 15 (1): 1-2. [DOI:10.1089/vbz.2015.15.1.intro]
3. Kuo CC, Wang HC, Huang CL. The potential effect of exotic Pacific rats Rattus exulans on vectors of scrub typhus. J Appl Ecol. 2011; 48: 192- 8. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01909.x]
4. Parvizi P, Ready PD. Nested PCRs and sequencing of nuclear ITS-rDNA fragments detect three Leishmania species of gerbils in sandflies from Iranian foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2008; 13 (9): 1159-71. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02121.x]
5. Amin M, Azizi K, Kalantari M, Motazedian MH, Asgari Q, Moemenbellah-Fard MD, et al. Laboratory-based diagnosis of leishmaniasis in rodents as the reservoir hosts in southern Iran, 2012.Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014; 4 (2): S575-80. [DOI:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0199]
6. Mirshamsi O, Darvish J, Kayvanfar N. A preliminary study on Indian gerbils, Tateraindica Hardwicke, 1807 at population level in eastern and southern parts of Iran (Rodentia: Muridae). Iran J AnimBiosyst. 2007; 3 (1): 49-61.
7. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Mohebali M. Merioneslibycus and Rhombomys opiums (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) are the main reservoir hosts in a new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1996; 90: 503-4. [DOI:10.1016/S0035-9203(96)90295-3]
8. Momenbellah-Fard MD, Kalantari M, Rassi Y, Javadian E. The PCR based detection of Leishmania major infection in Meriones libycus (rodentia: Muridae) from southern Iran. Ann Soc Belges Med Trop Parasitol Mycol. 2003; 79: 811-16.
9. Mohebali M, Javadian E, Yaghoobi-Ershadi M, Akhavan A, Hajjaran H, Abaei M. Characterization of Leishmania infection in rodents from endemic areas of the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2004; 10: 591-99.
10. Akhavan AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Khamesipour A, Mirhendi H, Alimohammadian MH, Rassi Y, Arandian MH, et al. Dynamics of Leishmania infection rates in Rhombomys opimus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) population of an endemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2010; 103: 84-9. [DOI:10.1007/s13149-010-0044-1]
11. Vazirianzadeh B, Saki J, Jahanifard E, Zarean M, Amraee K, Navid Pour S. Isolation and identification of Leishmania species from sand flies and rodents collected from Roffaye district, Khuzestan province, Southwest of Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013; 6 (6): e10025. [DOI:10.5812/jjm.10025]
12. Mohammadi S, Parvizi P. Simultaneous morphological and molecular characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2016; 10 (1): 55-64. [DOI:10.5812/jjm.42452]
13. Motazedian MH, Parhizkari M, Mehrabani D, Hatam G, Asgari Q. First detection of Leishmania major in Rattus norvegicus from Fars province, southern Iran. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010; 10 (10): 969-75. [DOI:10.1089/vbz.2008.0214]
14. Yigit N, Colak E, Cözen H, Özkurt S. The taxonomy and karyology of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Rodentia: Muridae) in Turkey. Turk J Zool. 1998; 22: 203-12.
15. Mehrabani D, Motazedian MH, Asgari- Gholam Q, Hatam R, Owji SM, OryanA. Leishmania major in Tatera indica in Estahban, southern Iran: microscopy, culture, isoenzyme, and PCR. Pak J Med Sci. 2011; 27 (4): 734-73.
16. Etemad E. Mammals of Iran, rodents and identification key. Vol.1. Tehran: Natural resource protection and human environment association press; 1978 [In Persian].
17. Etemad E. Mammals of Iran (Rodentia). 3th ed. Tehran: Natural resource protection and human environment association press; 1975 [In Persian].
18. Kent RJ, Norris DE. Identification of mammalian blood meals in mosquitoes by a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction targeting cytochrome b. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005; 73 (2): 336-42. [DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.336]
19. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A Kumar S. MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2013; 30 (12): 2725- 9. [DOI:10.1093/molbev/mst197]
20. Webster JP, Macdonald DW. Parasites of wild brown rats (Rattusnorvegicus) on UK farms. Parasitology. 1995; 111 (3): 247-55. [DOI:10.1017/S0031182000081804]
21. Ceruti R, Sonzogni O, Origgi F, Vezzoli F, Cammarata S, Giusti AM, et al. Capillaria hepatica infection in wild brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the urban area of Milan, Italy. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2001; 48: 235-40. [DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0450.2001.00436.x]
22. Di Be lla C, Vitale F, Russo G, Greco A, Milazzo C, Aloise G, et al. Are rodents a potential reservoir for Leishmania infantum in Italy? Methods Ecol Evol. 2003; 7: 125-9.
23. Gundi VAKB, Davoust B, Khamis A, Boni M, Raoult D, La Scola B. Isolation of Bartonellarattimassiliensis sp. nov.andBartonellaphoceensis sp. nov. from European Rattus norvegicus. J Clin Microbiol. 2004; 42 (8): 3816-18. [DOI:10.1128/JCM.42.8.3816-3818.2004]
24. Luckett WP, Hartenberger JL. Evolutionary relationships among rodents a multidisciplinary analysis. New York and London: Plenum Press; 1985. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4899-0539-0]
25. Jaeger JJ. Rodent phylogeny: new data and old problems. In: Benton MJ, editor. The phylogeny and classification of the tetrapods.Vol2. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1988; 177-99.
26. Blanga-Kanfi S, Miranda H, Penn O, Pupko T, DeBry RW, HuchonD. Rodent phylogeny revised: analysis of six nuclear genes from all major rodent clades. BMC Evol Biol. 2009; 9: 71. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-9-71]
27. Montgelard C, Forty E, Arnal V, Matthee CA. Supra familial relationships among Rodentia and the phylogenetic effect of removing fast-evolving nucleotides in mitochondrial, exon and intron fragments. BMC Evol Biol. 2008; 8: 321-10. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-8-321]
28. Blouin MS. Molecular prospecting for cryptic species of nematodes: mitochondrial DNA versus internal transcribed spacerInt J Parasitol. 2002; 32: 527-531. [DOI:10.1016/S0020-7519(01)00357-5]
29. Castresana J.Cytochrome b phylogeny and the taxonomy of great apes and mammals. Mol Biol Evol. 2001; 18: 465-71. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003825]
30. Hajjaran H, Mohebali M, Mamishi S, Vasigheh F, Oshaghi MA, Naddaf SR, et al. Molecular identification and polymorphism determination of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis agents isolated from human and animal hosts in Iran. Biomed Res Int. 2013; 7: e789326. [DOI:10.1155/2013/789326]
31. Darvishi M, Jafari R, Darabi H, Zendehbodi I, JahangardSA. Survey of rodents fauna regarding to their probabilistic contamination to Leishmania. Iran South Med J. 2017; 20 (4): 362-9.
32. Seddon JM, Baverstock PR. Evolutionary lineages of RT1.Ba in the Australian Rattus. Mol Biol Evol. 2000, 17 (5): 768-72. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026355]
33. Darvish J, Gholi Kami H, Mirshamsi O. Rodent fauna of the western Golestan province in Northeast Iran. Iran J AnimBiosyst. 2010; 6 (1): 37-48.