Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2019)                   JoMMID 2019, 7(3): 66-71 | Back to browse issues page

DOI: 10.29252/JoMMID.7.3.66


XML Print


Laboratory of Eco-epidemiology Parasitology and Populations Genetics, Institute Pasteur of Algeria, Route du Petit Staoueli Dely Brahim Algiers, Algeria
Abstract:   (1986 Views)
Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a severe disease that presents a real public health problem worldwide. Antileishmanial therapy remains expensive with intolerable side effects; therefore, it is essential to develop tolerable antileishmanial medications with a selective efficacy. Methods: In this study,  the leishmanicidal activities of seven Algerian plant extracts, selected based on either ethnobotanical or chemotaxonomical data, were screened for their antileishmanial activity against promastigotes and amastigotes of cutaneous leishmaniasis agent Leishmania major (MON 25), and visceral leishmaniasis agent Leishmania infantum (MON 1). The cytotoxic activity against human monocytes THP1 was also determined. Results: In both species, amastigotes showed more sensitivity to the extracts than promastigotes. Erica arborea flower (IC50=43,98 𝜇g/mL), Marrubium vulgare leaves (IC50=45,84 𝜇g/mL) and Artemisia herba-alba Asso aerial parts (IC50=55,21 𝜇g/mL) had an almost similar inhibitory effect on L. major promastigote. Marrubium vulgare leaves (IC50=35,63 𝜇g/mL) was most effective against L. infantum promastigotes. Besides, these extracts exhibited low selectivity indices. The best results were obtained with M. vulgare on both L. major and L. infantum promastigotes (IC50s of 45,84 µg/ml and 35,63 µg/ml), and amastigotes (IC50s of 32,15 µg/ml and 18,64 µg/ml). The selectivity index was above two (2.34 for L. major and 3.01 for L. infantum), calculated based on the acceptable cytotoxic effect of M. vulgare on human macrophage cell line (CC50=107,45 µg/ml). Conclusion: Out of the seven methanol extracts tested against promastigotes of L. major and L. infantum, three showed promising activity with potent leishmanicidal effect and acceptable selectivity indices on L. major and L. infantum
Full-Text [PDF 555 kb]   (198 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Anti-microbial agents, resistance and treatment protocols
Received: 2019/06/14 | Accepted: 2019/07/6 | Published: 2020/03/9

References
1. Grimaldi GJ, Tesh RB. Leishmaniases of the New World: current concepts and implications for future research. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1993; 6 (3): 230-50. [DOI:10.1128/CMR.6.3.230]
2. Desjeux P. Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004; 27 (5): 305-18. [DOI:10.1016/j.cimid.2004.03.004]
3. Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, et al. WHO leishmaniasis control Team. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One. 2012; E 35671. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0035671]
4. Harrat Z, Chawki S, Pratlong F , Benikhlef R, Selt B, Pierre J, et al. Description of a dermatropic Leishmania close to L. killicki (Rioux, Lanotte and Pratlong, 1986) in Algeria. Trop Med and Health. 2001; 103: 716-20. [DOI:10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.04.013]
5. WHO. Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance 2014. WHO. 2016; Website: drugresistance/ documents/surveillance report.
6. Harrat Z, Pratlong F, Belazzoug S, Dereure J, Deniau M, Rioux JA, et al. Leishmania infantum and L. major in Algeria. Trans of the Roy Soc of Trop Med and Hyg. 1996; 90: 625-9. [DOI:10.1016/S0035-9203(96)90410-1]
7. Eddaikra N, Ait-Oudhia K, Kherrachi I, Oury B, Moulti-Mati F, Benikhlef R, et al. Antimony susceptibility of Leishmania isolates collected over a 30-year period in Algeria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12 (3): e0006310. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006310]
8. Croft SL, Olliaro P. Leishmaniasis chemotherapy--challenges and opportunities. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011; 17 (10): 1478-83. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03630.x]
9. Tempone AG, Martins de Oliveira C, Berlinck RG. Current approaches to discover marine antileishmanial natural products. Planta Med. 2011; 77 (6): 572-85. [DOI:10.1055/s-0030-1250663]
10. Singh B, Sundar S. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives. Vaccine. 2012; 30 (26): 3834-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.03.068]
11. Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. J Nat Prod. 2007; 70 (3): 461-77. [DOI:10.1021/np068054v]
12. Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010. J Nat Prod. 2012; 75: 311e335. [DOI:10.1021/np200906s]
13. Azzi R, Djaziri R, Lahfa F, Sekkal FZ, Benmehdi H, Belkacem N. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in the North Western and South Western Algeria. J Med Plants Res. 2012; 6: 2041-50.
14. Vasisht K, Kumar V. Compendium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Vol. 1. Africa: ICS-UNIDO, Trieste; 2004. 23-56.
15. Gonzalez-Tejero MR, Casares-Porcel M, Sanchez-Rojas CP, Ramiro-Gutierrez JM, Molero-Mesa J, Pieroni A, et al. Medicinal plants in the Mediterranean area :synthesis of the results of the project Rubia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 116: 341-57. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2007.11.045]
16. Hammiche V, Maiza K. Traditional medicine in Central Sahara: pharmacopoeia of Tassili N'ajjer. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 105 (3): 358-67. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2005.11.028]
17. Boudjelal A, Henchiri C, Sari M, Sarri D, Hendel N, Benkhaled A, et al. Herbalists and wild medicinal plants in M'Sila (North Algeria): an ethnopharmacology survey. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 148 (2): 395-402. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.082]
18. Sarri M, Mouyeta FZ, Benzianea M, Cherieta A.Traditionaluseofmedicinal plants in a city at steppic character (M'sila, Algeria). J Pharm Pharma-cogn Res. 2014; 2 (2): 31-5.
19. Benarba B, Belabid L, Righi K, Bekkar AA, Elouissi M, Khaldi A, et al. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria). J Ethnopharmacol. 2015; 175: 626-37. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.030]
20. Ouelbani R, Bensari S, Mouas TN, Khelifi D. Ethnobotanical investigations on plants used in folk medicine in the regions of Constantine and Mila (North-East of Algeria). J Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 194: 196-218. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.016]
21. Gebre-Hiwot A, Tadesse G, Croft SL, Frommel D. An in vitro model for screening antileishmanial drugs: the human leukaemia monocyte cell line, THP-1. Acta Tropica. 1992 ; 51 : 237-45. [DOI:10.1016/0001-706X(92)90042-V]
22. Valadares DG, Duarte MC, Oliveira JS, Chávez-Fumagalli MA, Martins VT, Costa LE, et al. Leishmanicidal activity of the Agaricus blazei Murill in different Leishmania species. Parasitol Int. 2011; 60 (4): 357-63. [DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2011.06.001]
23. Atanasov AG, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Linder T, Wawrosch C, Uhrin P, et al. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review. Biotechnol Adv. 2015, 33 (8): 1582-1614. [DOI:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.08.001]
24. Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Natural products: a continuing source of novel drug leads. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1830 (6): 3670-95. [DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.02.008]
25. Argyropoulou C, Karioti A, Skaltsa H. Labdane diterpenes from Marrubium thessalum. Phytochem. 2009; 70: 635-640 [DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.03.011]
26. Delile L. Les plantes médicinales d'Algérie. Alger: Berti; 2007.
27. Kirmizibekmez H, Atay I, Kaiser M, Yesilada E, Tasdemir D. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of extracts of five Turkish Lamiaceae species. Nat Prod Commun. 2011; 6 (11): 1697-700. [DOI:10.1177/1934578X1100601132]
28. Hennebelle T, Sahpaz S, Skaltsounis AL, Bailleul F. Phenolic compounds and diterpenoids from Marrubium peregrinum. Biochem Syst and Ecol. 2007; 35: 624-626. [DOI:10.1016/j.bse.2007.02.006]
29. Ay M, Bahadori F, Ozturk M, Kolak U, Topcu G. Antioxidant activity of Erica arborea. Fitoterapia. 2007; 78: 571-3. [DOI:10.1016/j.fitote.2007.03.024]
30. Amezouar F, Badri W, Hsaine M, Bourhim N, Fougrach H. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Erica arborea L. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2013; 61 (6): 254-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.patbio.2013.03.005]
31. Rocha LG, Almeida JR, Macedo RO, Barbosa-Filho JM. A review of natural products with antileishmanial activity. Phytomedicine. 2005; 12 (6-7): 514-535. [DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2003.10.006]
32. Weathers PJ, Towler M, Hassanali A, Lutgen P, Engeu PO. Dried-leaf Artemisia annua: a practical malaria therapeutic for developing countries. World J Pharmacol. 2014; 3 (4): 39-55. [DOI:10.5497/wjp.v3.i4.39]
33. Bora KS, Sharma A. The genus Artemisia: a comprehensive review. Pharm Biol. 2011; 49 (1): 101-9. [DOI:10.3109/13880209.2010.497815]
34. Abad MJ, Bedoya LM, Apaza L, Bermejo P. The Artemisia L. genus: a review of bioactive essential oils. Molecules. 2012; 17 (3): 2542-66. [DOI:10.3390/molecules17032542]
35. Emami JSA, Taghizadeh Rabe SZ, Iranshahi M, Ahi A, Mahmoudi M. Sesquiterpene lactone fraction from Artemisia khorassanica inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression through the inactivation of NF-Kb. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010; 32 : 688e695. [DOI:10.3109/08923971003677808]
36. Hatimi S, Boudouma M, Bichichi M, Chaib N, Idrissi NG. In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso. Bul de la Soc de Path Exo. 2001; 94: 29-31.
37. Aloui Z, Messaoud C, Haoues M, Neffati N, Bassoumi Jamoussi I, Essafi-Benkhadir K, et al. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016: 9147096. [DOI:10.1155/2016/9147096]